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Rembrandt in the Blood: An Obsessive Aristocrat, Rediscovered Paintings and an Art-World Feud - The Analyst: japan casino bill expected in second half of 2019 York Times Image Jan Six XI in his gallery in Amsterdam last year.
Credit Credit Hellen van Meene for The New York Times Rembrandt in the Blood: An Obsessive Aristocrat, Rediscovered Paintings and an Art-World Feud No one had spotted a new painting by the Dutch master for four decades — until the scion of a storied Amsterdam family found two.
Jan Six XI in his gallery in Amsterdam last year.
Six is a 40-year-old Dutch art dealer based in Amsterdam, who attracted worldwide attention last year with the news that he had unearthed a previously unknown painting by Rembrandt, the most revered of Dutch masters — the first unknown Rembrandt to come to light in 42 years.
He had just taken his two small children to school in true Dutch fashion, by bicycle: one seated between the handlebars and the other in back.
The antidote to that feeling is encompassed in another word.
Gezelligheid, loosely translated as coziness, is the condition people in the Netherlands strive for in the interiors of their homes.
The building dates from the early 1600s.
Ancient beams cross the ceiling.
The views out of the windows are of bicyclists racing by and the evocative, ever-somber surface of the canal reflecting the gabled facades of the buildings on the opposite side.
Six made analyst: japan casino bill expected in second half of 2019 that morning, then sat down to a stack of mail.
He dispensed with the bills and other annoyances first so as to settle into the catalogs of coming art auctions.
He skimmed it quickly, almost dismissively; it was for the daytime sale, which featured lesser objects.
The top paintings and sculptures are always reserved for the evening.
The slightly miscolored photograph in the catalog click a portrait of a rather dazed-looking young gentleman with a lace collar and a proto-Led Zeppelin coif.
The painting dated from somewhere between 1633 and 1635.
The giveaway was the particular type of lace collar, which was the height of fashion in that brief span and then quickly went out of style.
This fit: It made sense that a painting by a top-tier artist would have attracted a prominent collector.
Six was so excited that he jumped on his bike and cycled a short distance across central Amsterdam to the home of Ernst van de Wetering, universally renowned as a top authority on Rembrandt; still breathless, Six thrust a photocopy of the picture at him.
As befits a person whose opinion is weighted with import, van de Wetering typically reacts with reserve on first seeing an image, but he was intrigued.
Six cycled back home and bought a plane ticket.
Lace was a signifier of status throughout the 17th century, and Six believes Rembrandt had a signature way of depicting this variety, which is called bobbin lace.
Other artists of the period painstakingly executed its intricacies in white paint on top of the jacket.
Rembrandt did something like the opposite.
He first painted the jacket, then over it the collar area in white, then used black paint to create the negative spaces in the collar.
And where other painters were careful to create repeating patterns in the lacework, Rembrandt wove a freestyle design.
For viewers standing a few inches away from such a painting, the collar appears as a hieroglyphic jumble; step back a pace, and it coheres.
The original was conveniently located just across town in the National Gallery, so he ran over there, and before long he was standing in front of it, gazing back and forth from the painting to the image on his camera, feeling his blood race as a hunch solidified into near certainty.
Jan Six is a tall, slim, almost apologetically dapper man, whose customary expression contains a hint of someone carrying a burden.
The burden turns out to be his name, which is actually Jan Six XI.
Dating back four centuries, his aristocratic family has named a firstborn son Jan in nearly every generation.
The first Jan Six, a man of art, culture and politics, was a true representative of the Dutch Golden Age, the period in which an explosion of creativity in art, science and commerce vaulted the tiny nation to the forefront of European life and thought.
That Jan Six was actually a friend of the great Rembrandt van Rijn.
When he decided, sometime in the 1650s, to have his portrait painted, he asked Rembrandt to do the honors.
But Rembrandt is at the heart of the Six Collection.
The collection now holds no fewer than 270 portraits of family members.
As the centuries rolled on and other great European family art holdings were broken up and museums became the principal repositories for such things, the Six Collection, which remains in the Six family home, grew in mystique.
But Jan XI, the art dealer, is not that Jan, not yet anyway.
His father, Jan X — or, as he prefers to be called, Baron J.
Six van Hillegom — still reigns.
The elder Six, who is 71, is known in cultural circles as both a deeply private man he declined to be interviewed for this article and a somewhat prickly one.
I met the elder Six nine years ago, when I was researching a book about the history of Amsterdam and wanted to see inside the famous Six house.
After a typical Dutch lunch of sandwiches and milk in a kitchen that seemed right out of a Vermeer painting — dark woodwork, tile floors, angled light — he took me through his home: a delightful warren of halls and old rooms stuffed with curios, some of them priceless.
Though display rooms and living quarters were separate, the feeling of being simultaneously in a home and a museum was palpable: You turned from admiring a Frans Hals to note a splayed book and reading glasses on a side table, or a broom and dustpan in the corner.
My overall impression from the visit was of something out of a Thomas Mann novel: faded grandeur and an air of antique stillness, overseen by a wizened and mildly vexed aristo.
The elder Six may be known for his contentiousness, but regarding his most public battle, a multiyear more info against the Dutch government for failing to live up to an agreement to pay for maintenance of the house, some people say he had a point.
In the past the family had been forced to sell Vermeers and other national treasures in order to pay tax bills.
Eventually, in 2008, the lawsuit was settled and an agreement reached: A foundation owns the Six mansion, the family has a right to live in it in perpetuity and the state provides funds for its upkeep.
In exchange, the Sixes are to provide limited public access to the collection.
Six can talk about Rembrandt endlessly, absorbingly and with great feeling.
The Dutch Golden Age marked a turn away from strictly religious subjects; suddenly people were interested in ordinary life and in themselves, and artists followed suit.
Portrait painting became an industry.
But Rembrandt went one better than his contemporaries.
Many of them could paint what you looked like.
What made Rembrandt so special to the citizens of Amsterdam, who lined up to commission him to paint their portraits, was that he seemed to be able to go beneath the surface, to get at who you were.
Early on, he became the most celebrated painter of the day, but he refused to follow shifting fashions and fell from favor.
He overspent, going heavily into debt.
Then he went bankrupt.
He seems to have lived his last years in a misery of his own making.
If the Dutch Golden Age evinced a newly intimate focus on the individual, Rembrandt applied the dictum to himself ruthlessly.
His self-portraits, especially the later ones, are pitilessly honest explorations of the psychic toll we inflict on ourselves.
See the brush strokes?
He started here and slowly moves to the right and makes a curve.
He adds these broad strokes.
He cleverly uses the way light actually shines on material.
Slowly it recedes into shadow.
He turned off the lights and lit candles, and in an instant the paintings were transformed.
They took on new energy; the golds and reds and flesh tones became warmer.
The flicker of the flames seemed to breathe life into the two-dimensional figures.
Six was helping me to experience the world of 17th-century Amsterdammers in the most tangible way: the minute differences in ways of seeing and feeling that separate one historical epoch from another.
But I came to realize that he was also giving me an insight into something else: his lifelong struggle with his family over what it expected of him as heir to the Six Collection.
Where previous heirs — who were avid collectors, though not art professionals — seem to have accepted the responsibility with equanimity, Six pushed it away.
He hated high school, got a job as a cook in a restaurant and thought for a time that becoming a chef might be his route of rebellion.
When his parents were away, he would host parties in the mansion.
Sometimes we set off the alarms.
It was these ordinary folk who made Six https://casinobonusgamesonline.com/6/426.html that art was his calling.
Then I saw how happy and interested the people were.
Some of the visitors knew a lot about art, and I listened to them.
They went from being flat representations of dead people to aesthetic expressions serving as portals into history.
He was good at the job and moved easily in the world of international wealth and culture.
Over time, it seemed, a family gene kicked in.
Geert Mak, a Dutch author who wrote a history of the Six family, told me that some of the earlier Jan Sixes had an extraordinarily acute visual sense, which guided them as they amassed their collection.
A series of clashes with his father ensued, many of them about providing greater public access, which has always been a difficulty.
Currently, tours of the collection, which are by appointment only, are booked into next year.
The picture that the younger Six sketched was of an inward-looking father who is trying to preserve a legacy by keeping the world at bay, who comes to realize over time that he also has to do battle with a gregarious and extroverted son who feels that the way to preserve that legacy is precisely by sharing it with the wider world.
This was the other point of the candlelight demonstration Six gave me.
Take away the noise, and beauty will emerge.
The younger Six told me he believed his father feels his duty is to the collection, including the way his ancestors preserved it.
Whereas he himself feels an obligation to the art.
So the house and the collection have nothing to do with me.
But in a digital, now-oriented time, in which there is a steady shift in the global balance of power last year China became the second-largest art market in the world, behind the United StatesEuropean old masters have come to seem.
In 2018, 85 percent of the ARTnews list of 200 top collectors said they collected contemporary art in one form or another; only 6 percent said they collected old masters.
And while the top names — Rembrandt, Titian, Raphael — still command top dollar, everything else has dropped in value.
Seascapes, Flemish still lives: Many of these have diminished in value.
Duparc said that in the Netherlands there is exactly one professor fully devoted to the field of Golden Age Dutch art.
Matthew Teitelbaum, the director of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, says that a new Center for Netherlandish Art that his institution is developing will aim to counter this trend.
Despite this inhospitable landscape, Jan Six decided in 2009 to set himself up as an independent dealer in Dutch old masters, with a particular specialty in portraits.
Six flourished as a dealer.
He spent the next several years shuttling among New York, London, Paris and Amsterdam, buying and selling, developing trust and an ever-more-discerning eye.
He became versed in the high-tech methods for analyzing paintings, which can yield details about canvas, wood and pigment that can offer insight into a work and its creator.
He did well as a dealer — a Govert Flinck here, a Gerrit van Honthorst there — but he felt he was biding his time.
What mattered to him was Rembrandt.
Six worked doggedly to make himself an expert.
Petersburg, Russia he has seen 80 percent of them so farand he amassed an archive of tens of thousands of documents and images related to the artist.
When we first spoke about the portrait he discovered, he made it clear what finding it meant to him.
That was enough for Six: He was ready to bid.
But if anyone else suspected what he did, the price would shoot up.
Rembrandts, of course, can sell in the tens or hundreds of millions.
Each figure is wearing the telltale bobbin lace.
Six had the painting cleaned, restored and scientifically analyzed.
For this he went to the top team in the country for high-tech art analysis.
Museums, however, try to avoid being used by dealers as marketing tools, and Noble was not willing to be so declarative.
For such a painting, which seemingly came out of nowhere, there is no way to achieve absolute certainty about its provenance.
He went on to elaborate the particular difficulties that Rembrandt poses for authenticators: the variety of styles he painted in, his many pupils, the likelihood that in his studio more than one person worked on a given painting.
Schwartz is one of a number of art historians who, when it comes to questions of the authenticity of works by famous painters, would like people to focus less on the artist and the monetary worth of the painting than on the work itself.
The Rembrandt scholar withheld judgment while the painting was being analyzed.
One tipoff was the fact analyst: japan casino bill expected in second half of 2019 the face is slightly blurred.
Rembrandt does this in group portraits, van de Wetering told me, in order to guide the eye to the central figure in the composition.
It may have been a female figure, and the original painting was possibly a wedding portrait that was later cut apart.
He was coming off a difficult divorce; the two hit it off almost immediately.
Here was the scion of a family that is famous in the Netherlands for its connection to great art, and to Rembrandt in particular.
And learn more here he had discovered a Rembrandt on his own.
Her idea was to unveil the painting in the same way a blockbuster book would be introduced, with a full media blitz.
Six resisted at first.
Over the next few days, the news echoed around the world.
The book became an instant best seller in Dutch, and English and French editions went to press.
Dutch people like to point out that they are an aggressively egalitarian and plain-spoken lot.
There are several sayings in the language about the danger of hubris: The tallest tree takes the most wind; stick your head out too far and it will get chopped off.
The old-masters world, too, tends to prefer discretion — if not modesty — to showiness.
The flamboyance with which Six announced his find defied both cultures.
Yet the gatekeepers of traditional art, far from turning up their noses analyst: japan casino bill expected in second half of 2019 the showiness, were initially wowed by the extra attention the field was getting.
Bijl went on to claim that he had approached Six about buying the painting together, that Six agreed and that the two men further committed to cap their joint bid just above 100,000 euros, which was as high as Bijl was able to go.
When the painting sold for 153,000 euros, Bijl said, it never occurred to him that the winning bidder was Six.
Bijl was accusing Six of entering an agreement with him, then separately putting in another, higher bid of his own through an intermediary in order to hem in a competitor who saw the true value of the work.
Six told me last September that see more never agreed to buy the portrait with Bijl.
He did seem to suggest, however, that he had led the other dealer on.
They are about the same age.
Like Six, Sander Bijl grew up surrounded by old Dutch art.
But there was a difference in status between the two men.
Earlier, I asked him about a rumor going around that he had discovered a second Rembrandt.
Now he said it was true.
But this accusation from Sander Bijl, Six told me, changed things.
In order to explain what happened between himself and Bijl, he said, he needed to go public with the news that he had found a second Rembrandt.
He did so on Sept.
All those years of looking at Rembrandts seemed to pay off in a flash.
What caught his eye was what appeared to be a self-portrait of a very young Rembrandt in one of the minor figures.
To try to return it to something like the state the master intended, Six decided to have the overpainting removed.
Once again he consulted van de Wetering, who, he says, all but insisted that he have Martin Bijl do the extremely delicate restoration.
He said it was clear to him from this message that van de Wetering had violated his confidence by informing Martin Bijl that Six was on the hunt for another Rembrandt, and that the father had told his son.
Meanwhile, he said, Martin Bijl was demanding more money to complete the restoration of the first painting — not just an hourly fee, as per the original agreement, but a percentage of profits from the sale of the painting.
I emailed Martin Bijl for his response to this charge.
He did not reply, but his son did, saying that his father asked for more money after Six demanded that he speed up his restoration work, which would have required him to turn down other clients.
He sent me a chain of WhatsApp messages between Six and the elder Bijl that suggested a cordial relationship.
He said that he and Six had done business together on occasion — he bought a couple of small works from Six early last year, he said — so it was normal for him to approach Six with the idea of buying energy casino 2019 slotsia painting together.
I have to pay for his personal family issues?
I now know that he can lie.
He has long dark hair that, when he is exasperated, tends to fall across his face like a curtain.
He raked it back in place with one hand as he made his case.
Since the Rijksmuseum and the Mauritshuis reopened after renovations a few years ago, each institution has seen visitor numbers roughly double.
He has the pedigree, of course.
But beyond that, he so thoroughly grasps what makes this art special.
By turning away from strictly religious subjects and highlighting the world around them — still lives, landscapes, pictures of one another — the painters of the time created works of art that are windows into who we are.
People who devote their lives to the field do so out of a sense of dedication and treat it like a cause.
The last time I spoke with Jan Six, in February, he was in an altogether different mood.
Some have an old painting they want me to look at.
A woman just called me.
She asked if there was some way I would point. カジノ法案 最新ニュース womans day giveaways congratulate in at their birthday lunch and talk about Rembrandt for 10 minutes.
This has given me a great boost.
I realized that being this web page obsessed with a painter is not necessarily a good thing.
But of course I still am.
This one, of his ancestor and namesake, seems caught in a swirl of melancholy, a knowing, weary consciousness of the frustrations and limitations of human life.
That was the epiphany that Jan Six XI had as a teenager, looking at the portrait of his ancestor, which set him off in search of his own identity, distinct from that of his forebears: that someone from three and a half centuries ago could, with paint on canvas, convey the human essence in a way that is utterly intelligible today.
That therefore, perhaps, identity, with all its flaws and insecurities, its jets of insight and pools of empathy, as individual as it is, is at the same time universal.
An Afternoon in Akihabara, Tokyo (Episode 1) - LIFE IN JAPAN 2019
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